Sterne and Hogarth in parallel
by A. Torelli, E. Notti

INTRODUCTION
Structure of the hypertext

 


CULTURAL BACKGROUND


John Loche
Changes
Samuel Johnson
A quotation
Biography
Coffee Houses
Händel

 


COMPUTATIONAL ANALYSES


Art
Music
Philosophy
Theatre

 


HOGARTH BIOGRAPHY


Gin Lane and Beer Street
Masquerades and Operas

 


STERNE BIOGRAPHY


Satire

 


WHAT THEY HAVE IN COMMON


Lines
David Garrick
Analysis of Beauty
Addison
Shaftesbury

  

Please note that this table is a record of all the passages in the novel referring to four main fields of the Arts, Music, Philosophy, Theatre and the Visual arts. It is intended to reflect the whole structure of the novel, where each column is dedicated to a specific topic. We want to make it clear that they are treated separately in order to give a general impression of what a mixture of the arts might be like, with no "real" link between them.

MUSIC

PHILOSOPHY

THEATRE

ART

P. 61 wind instrument

P. 73 fiddle

P. 84 stage…dance…song…concerto

P. 136 instrumental music

P. 188 intonation of voice

P. 194 …as a note could follow the touch

P. 263 mixture of the two tones…chord in music

P. 306 …three hundred and fifty leagues out of tune upon my fiddle

P. 445 …an octave below them…

P. 528 for my uncle…notes

 

P.13 Fiddler and painter : Sterne was both, he wrote in his Memories for his daughter, Lydia, that " Books, painting, fiddling and shooting" were his amusements.

( from TSP )

p.56 Lillabullero : immensely popular song originating in Ireland in 1687 or 1688 as an anti-papist ballad, supposedly written by Thomas Wharton. ( from TSP )

p.133 octave Scarlattiinstruments : twelve concertos by the Italian composer Domenico Scarlatti (1685-1757), published in 1744 by Charles Avison (1709-70), English composer and author of An Essay on Musical Expression. The second movement of the sixth concerto is indeed to be played con furia, with fury; con strepito, not easily. ( from TSP )

p.355 lentamente…grave…adagio…con strepito…sicilliana…alla cappella…con l’arco…senza l’arco : they mean slowly, solemn, gracefully, uproariously, slow, with a bow and without the bow. ( from FE)

P. 7 natural philosopher

P. 48 the mind…along

P. 58 variety

P. 84 succession of our ideas

P. 164-193 Locke

p. 267-291 philosophy

 

p.5 motions and activity : " This strong Combination of Ideas, not ally’d by Nature, the Mind makes in it self either voluntarily, or by chance, and hence it comes in different Men to be very different, according to their different Inclinations, Educations, Interests, etc. Custom settles habits of Thinking in the Understanding, as well as of Determining in the Will, and of Motions in the Body; all which seems to be but Trains of Motion in the Animal Spirits, which once set a going continue on in the same steps they have been used to, which by often treading are worn into a smooth path, and the Motion in it becomes easy and as it were Natural. As far as we can comprehend Thinking, thus Ideas seem to be produced in our Minds; or if they are not, this may serve to explain their following one another in an habitual train, when once they are put into that tract, as well as it does to explain such Motions of the Body." (from FE )

p.6 rights of humanity: Locke’s advice for the young student of civil law in Some Thoughts Concerning Education: " when he has pretty well digested Tully’s Offices, and added to it Puffendorf de Officio hominis et civis, it may be seasonable to set him upon Grotius de Jure Belli et Pacis, or which perhaps is the better of the two, Puffendorf de Jure naturali et Gentium; wherein he will be instructed in the natural Rights of Men, and the Original and Foundations of Society, and the Duties resulting from thence." ( from FE )

p.9 from an unhappy association : " Some of our Ideas have a natural Correspondence and Connexion one with another. Besides this there is another Connexion of Ideas wholly owing to Chance or Custom; Ideas that in themselves are not at all of kin but come to be so united in some Men’s minds and it’s very hard to separate them, they always keep in company, and the one no sooner at any time comes into the Understanding but its Associate appears with it; and if there are more than two which are thus united, the whole gang always inseparable shew themselves together." ( from FE ) .

p.13 hobby- horses: hobbies is somewhat inadequate. It should also be noted that the word was in use throughout the Seventeenth century for "a wanton, a prostitute ". Sterne may also have had in mind Hamlet " For O, the hobby.horse is forgot," a line from a popular anti-puritanical ballad lamenting the prohibition of country games and dances, in which the HB, a participant costumed like a horse, played a large part. ( from FE )

p.18 wit and judgement : " for that wit and judgement in this world never go together; inasmuch as they are two operations differing from each other as wide as east is from west- So, says Locke- so are farting and hickuping, say I"

( from TSP )

p.44 prejudices of education a term used during the period by free-thinkers in their attacks on established religion.

( from TSP )

p.58 variety

p.61 non.naturals…hobby-horses : Sterne’s letter of January 1760 " The ruleing passion and the wanderings of heart are the very things which mark and distinguish a man’s character-in which I would as soon leave out a man’s head as his hobby-horse". (from TSP )

p.70 Locke’s essay…me : " The cause of Obscurity in simple Ideas, seems to be either dull Organs; or very slight and transient Impressions made by the Objects; or else a weakness in the Memory, not able to retain them as received. For to return again to visible Objects, to help us to apprehend this matter. If the Organs, or Faculties of Perception, like Wax over-hardened with Cold, will not receive the Impression of the Seal, from the usual impulse wont to imprint it; or, like Wax of a temper too soft, will not hold it well, when well imprinted; or else supposing the Wax of a temper fit, but the Seal not applied with a sufficient force, to make a clear Impression; In any of these cases, the print left by Seal, will be obscure. This, I suppose, needs no application to make it plainer."

( from FE )

p.76 the sound…rapid: Sterne touches here upon the Lockean concepts of duration and the succession of ideas. ( from FE )

p.92 this is to serve : Locke, Some Thoughts Concerning Education " But of all the Ways whereby Children are to be instructed and their Manners formed, the plainest, easiest, and most efficacious is to set before their Eyes the Examples of those Things you would have them to, or avoid. Which, when they are pointed out to them, in the Practice of Persons within their Knowledge, with some Reflections on their Beauty or Unbecomingness, are of more force to draw or deterr their Imitation, then any Discourses which can be made to them…and the Beauty or Uncomeliness of many Things, in good and ill Breeding, will be better learnt, and make deeper Impressions on them, in the Examples of others, than from any Rules or Instructions can be given about them." ( from FE )

p.137 the thought floated : from Locke’s ECHU " And so we should neither stir our Bodies, nor employ our Minds; but let our Thoughts run adrift, without any direction or design; and suffer the Ideas of our Mind, like unregarded shadows, to make their appearances there, as it happen’d, without attending to them". ( from Fe )

p.154 duration…age : from Locke’s ECHU " To understand Time and Eternity aright, we ought with attention to consider what Idea it is we have of Duration, and how we came by it…for whilst we are thinking or we receive successively several Ideas in our Minds, we know that we do exist; and so we call the Existence, or the Continuation of the Existence of ourselves, Commensurate to the succession of any Idea in our Minds, the Duration of our selves, or any such other thing co-existing with our Thinking." ( from FE)

p.341 substantial forms : like the ten predicaments this was another exploted Aristotelian concept. Locke’s attack is in ECHU " Those therefore who have been taught, that the several Species of Substances had their distinct internal Substancial Forms; and that it was those Forms, which made the Distinction of Substances into their true Species and Genera, were led yet farther out of the way, by having their Minds set upon fruitless Enquires after SF, wholly unintelligible, and whereof we have scarce so much as any obscure, or confused Conception in general." ( from FE )

p.432 conversations: both Hogarth and Sterne look for conversation.

P. 47-84 upon the stage

p.117 I have dropp’d the curtain over this scene for a minute

p.266 fall out upon the stage…behind the scenes

p.231 drop the curtain…scenes

p.235 you dropp’d a curtain at the stairs foot

p.321 entertainment …play

p.360 behind the curtain

p.367 scene

p.377 behind the scene...theatre…Garrick…stage…curtain…character…act

P.3 fence against : Sterne was consumptive and seems to have been particularly troubled by ill health during this period. This phrase occurs in a letter to David Garrick, April 19, 1762 " I Shandy it more than ever, and verily do believe, that by mere Shandeism sublimated by a laughterloving people, I fence as much against infirmities, as I do by the benefit of air and climate." ( from FE )

p.23 heteroclite…declensions : William Warburton was perhaps the first to apply this metaphor of grammatical irregularity to Sterne himself. " I must not forget to thank you" he wrote to Garrick in June 1760 " for the hints I received from you… concerning our heteroclite Parson" ( from FE )

p.27 that I…fit it : Sterne alludes to Sancho’s reply to the idea of his wife’s being a Queen. Sterne seems to have identified the attacks on Yorick not only with his own pre-Shandy career, but with events following its publication as well. In March 1760 he wrote to Garrick that the rumor that he intended to make William Warburton Tristram’s tutor was "one of the number of those which so unfairly brought poor Yorick to his grave" (from FE )

p.39 Jenny : in the earlier portions of the book, Jenny represents Catherine Fourmantel, a professional singer with whom, while she appeared at the Assembly Rooms in York during the season of 1759-60, Sterne carried on an open and perhaps Platonic sentimental flirtation. Later in the book Jenny is probably merely a symbol for any woman beloved by any man. ( from FE )

p.148 Garrick…observer : David Garrick, the greatest actor of the century, with whom Sterne struck up an immediate acquaintance when he came to London in the winter of 1760, having previously sent copies of TS to him by means of Catherine Fourmantel. Sterne refers to Garrick again in TS always in a highly complimentary fashion. His view of Garrick ‘s ability is indicated in his letters by such comments as " O God! They have nothing here ( in Paris ) which gives the nerves so smart a blow, as those great characters ( Richard III ) in the hands of Garrick". ( from TSP and FE )

p.192 so dramatic a felicity…scenes..in the whimsical theatre : Sterne’s letter to Garrick, January 27,1760 " I sometimes think of a Cervantic Comedy upon these Materials of 3 and 4 Vol which will be still more dramatick,- tho I as often distrust its Success, unless at the Universities…" ( from FE )

p.228 O Garrick : letter to the friend of 1760 " Half a word of Encouragement would be enough to make me conceive and bring forth something for the Stage…" and again to Garrick in 1765 " I am sometimes in my friend’s house (Garrick) but he is always in Tristram Shandy’s- where my friends say he will continue even when he himself is no more"

p.332 come!chear up my lads : Sterne may have had in his mind the opening line of Garrick’s popular song " Heart of Oak " : come cheer up, my lads,’tis to glory we steer. First sung in 1759 and published the following year.

( from FE )

p.352 accusing spirit : the idea of a book of deeds being kept on every person perhaps derives from Revelation 20:12. " And I saw the dead, small and great, stand before God; and the books were opened: and another book was opened, which is the book of life: and the dead were judged out of those things which were written in the book according to their works". Sterne uses the idea in his sermon " Description of the world ". In a letter of January 1762 he writes " the thought of the accusing spirit flying up to heaven’s chancery with the oath, you are kind enough to say is sublime- my friend Garrick, thinks so too, and I am most vain of his approbation ..." (from FE )

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

p. 13 fiddler and painter

p.31 engraver

p. 42 strokes : this word can be found also on pages 77, 92, 149, 231

p.52 outlines

p.60 drawing by...draw...out-line...sketch...drawing form...figure out

p. 73 parabola...hyperbola...thee.

p.78 lines and angles

p. 288 Calais, see also p. 379, p. 398, p. 399. See also Hogarth’s painting.

p. 315 pictures

3p.28 brandy, see also p. 329 wine, p. 453 Toby was not a water-drinker : see Hogarth paintings referring to alcohol.

P.388 paint

P.391-392 straight line : see also p. 449

p.404-405 drawing...picture...Reynolds...drawing...

p.427 nature : this is an important concept for Hogarth

p.521-522 the blank page : once again we can see how the reader is involved and active. See also p. 531 to let people tell their stories their own way

P. 5 motions and activity...set a-going : the idea of movement is very important for both Hogarth and Locke; see also p. 76 the succession of his ideas was now rapid ; p.283 the motion...impetuous ; p.288 mixed motion. In his Analysis of Beauty, chapter V of Intricacy ("intricacy" and the vocabulary of pursuit invokes Locke’s metaphor of the chase from the beginning of The Essay Concerning Human Understanding: "the mind’s searches after truth are a sort of hawking and hunting, wherein the very pursuit makes a great part of the pleasure"), Hogarth wrote: "the active mind is ever bent to be employ’d. Pursuing is the business of our lives; and even abstracted from any other view, gives pleasure. Every arising difficulty, that for a while attends and interrupts the pursuit, gives a sort of spring to the mind, enhances the pleasure, and makes what would else be toil and labour, become sport and recreation...thus the eye, strictly speaking, can only pay due attention to these letters in succession, yet the amazing ease and swiftness, with which it performs this task, enables us to see considerable spaces with sufficient satisfaction at one sudden view...moving along with the eye, and tracing out the parts of every form we mean to examine in the most perfect manner: and when we would follow with exactness the course anybody takes, that is in motion, this ray is always to be supposed to move with the body."

p. 15 and measure my piece in the painter’s scale : this is an invention of Roger de Piles, a seventeenth-century authority on painting. ( from TSP )

p.29-30 the black page represents the idea of death.

.

p.58 variety : this concept is very important for both Hogarth and Locke. From The Analysis of Beauty, chapter II of Variety "...entertaining the eye with the pleasure of variety"

p. 61 taking copies...drawing a full-length character...draw... pencil see also p.432 nor with the apes...conversations Hogarth regarded himself as a popular drammatist as his important statement underlines " I therefore turned my thoughts to a still more novel mode, painting and engraving modern moral subjects, a field not broken up in any country or any age…I wished to compose pictures on canvas, similar to representations on the stage; and further hope they will be tried by the same test, and criticized by the same criterion…I have endeavoured to treat my subjects as a dramatic writer; my picture is my stage and men and women are my players…this I found was most likely to answer my purpose, provided I could strike my passions, and by small sums from many, by the sale of prints I could engrave from my own pictures, thus secure the property to myself" ( from P )

p. 74 painters ; p.148-9 grand picture...not the principle of the pyramid...Titian...Rubens...Raphael...Angelo...; Hogarth was against imitation.

p.81 just heaven!...line of beauty : here Sterne is recalling two distinct passages from the Analysis of Beauty: "...and if the reader will follow in his imagination the most exquisite turns of the chissel in the hands of a master, when he is putting the finishing touches to a statue; he will soon be led to understand what it is the real judges expect from the hand of such a master, which the Italians call, the little more, il poco più, and which in reality distinguishes the original master-pieces at Rome from even the best copies of them..."; "...now whoever can conceive lines thus constantly flowing, the delicately varying over every part of the body even to the fingers ends, and will call to his remembrance what led us to this last description of what the Italians call , il poco più ( the little more that is expected from the hand of a master) will, in my mind, want very little more than what his own observation on the works of art and nature will lead him to, to acquire a true idea of the word taste, when applied to form; however inexplicable this word may hitherto have been imagined". The fact that Sterne includes "poco meno", where Hogarth does not, perhaps indicates his familiarity with the original use of the terms in musical notation. See Hogarth for the description of the lines. Moreover see p. 506 liberty...celibacy

p. 85 analysis of beauty : this is a graceful compliment to William Hogarth , English painter and engraver, whose style in caricaturing Sterne had imitated. The Analysis of Beauty appeared in 1753. Sterne’s evocation of Hogarth was a commonplace among mid-century writers, for instance Fielding in Joseph Andrews. Before publishing his work, Hogarth painted his self-portrait in order to raise curiosity. ( from FE )

p. 88 conversation : both Hogarth and Sterne look for that, they want to speak with an active reader. See Hogarth’s "Conversation Pieces".

p. 97-98 before the Corporal begins...it too : Hogarth is very interested in proportions and poses. Here Sterne has obviously amused himself by composing the scene as if it were a painting . Trim, the most important figure is placed in the centre-"in the middle of the room-where he could best see, and best be seen by, his audience". But Trim’s importance is accidental and comical: he is socially the lowest person in the company, he is not the author of the sermon, and he understands it only in a superficial way- he continually steps out of his oratorical role, and is far more distressed by what he is reading than are his auditors. The illustration of the scene which, at Sterne’s request, was drawn by Hogarth, is completely in keeping with his spirit of comic inversion: Trim is shown standing in the classic pose of the orator, but with his back to the viewer of the picture, and not his front or his profile, as the conventions of the history painting would demand. ( from FE ) See also p.83 shape...convenience of all the parts, p. 90 construction...others, p. 130-131(they refer to Reynolds), p. 139 proportion, p. 157 resting his elbow...hand, p.175 the palm word, p.180 well-proportioned faces, p.227-228 and laying ...follows, p.231 strike...five inches and a half in length, p. 239 setting his arms a-kimbo, p.240 snatch’d...perpendicularly, p.260 painting ...balance...results, p. 295 my mother...period, p.298 hat : their position is described in the Analysis of Beauty, p. 325 in saying this...violence, p. 330 the corporal...thus, p. 457 Mrs Wadman...the question, p. 467 at the same time...posture..., p. 478-479 let me see...live, p.501-503 my mother...example, p. 507 every servant...met, p.512 my mother ...wall. Hogarth dedicated his chapter III of the Analysis of Beauty to uniformity, regularity and symmetry but there he concluded that the constant rule in composition in painting is to avoid regularity.

p. 148-149 grand picture...Titian...Angelo...: Sterne’s connnoisseurship of painting is indebted to Joshua Reynolds, Idler 76 (September 29, 1759) "Here", says he , "are twelve upright figures; what a pity it is that Raphael was not acquainted with the pyramidal principle; he would then have contrived the figures in the middle to have been on higher ground, or the figures at the extremities stooping or lying, which would not only have formed the group into the shape of a pyramid, but likewise contrasted the standing figures". Moreover he wrote something about Titian and Michael Angelo: " With a gentleman of his cast, I visited last week the cartoons at Hampton-court; he was just returned from Italy, a connoisseur of course, and of course his mouth full of nothing but the grace of Rafaelle, the purity of Domenichino, the learning of Poussin, the air of Guido, the greatness of taste of the Charaches, and the sublimity and grand contorno of Michael Angelo; with all the rest of the cant of criticism, which he emitted with that volubility which generally those orators have who annex no ideas to their words." In addition to some slight changes in wording, Sterne supplements Reynold’s catalogue with "the colouring of Titian", "the expression of Rubens" and "the corregiescity of Correggio". The three painters are often considered together in the works of the day, particularly as great colourists; see Hogarth’s Analysis of Beauty "a common sign- painter that lay his colours smooth, instantly becomes, in point of colouring, a Rubens, a Titian, or a Correggio." ( from FE )

p.184 the marble page : once again Sterne shows us his multimediality, which he has in common with Hogarth-see his balloons.

p.224-225 Toby’s face into a more pleasureable oval : Hogarth prefers the oval to the circle, the triangle to the square, odd numbers to even, and irregular patterns to regular.

( from AB )

p.324 husk and shell : from the Analysis of Beauty "...let every object under our consideration, be imagined to have its inward contents scoop’d out so nicely, as to have nothing of it left but a thin shell, exactly corresponding both in his inner and outer surface, to the shape of the object itself: and let us likewise suppose this thin shell to be made up of very fine threads, closely connected together, and equally perceptible, whether the eye is supposed to observe them from without, or within; and we shall find the ideas of the two surfaces of this shell will naturally coincide. The very word shell makes us seem to see both surfaces alike".